Glossary Of Terms - Q

QALY Qds Quercetin

QALY means quality-adjusted life years. This is a patient’s expectation of life multiplied by a number between 0 and 1 that is a measure of how healthy he or she is. Eg expected to live 20 years but only half able to do things gives QUAL = 10. It also gives an estimate of how many extra months or years of life a patient might gain if given a particular treatment.

qds = four times a day. od = once a day, bd (= bpd) = twice per day. tds = three times a day. See under Prescription terms.

Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention, QIPP, and reform plan for 2010-2015 was produced in May 2011 by the NHS Cambridgeshire.

Quercetin is a yellowish crystalline pigment, found naturally as its glycosides in the rind and bark of many plants. It is used medically to treat fragile capillaries. Formula C15H10O7, melting point 316C. Also sometimes called flavin.

Quercetin is a flavonol, and is the major flavonoid in the diet – its main sources being tea, onions, apples, and red wine. Quercetin is metabolised very quickly by the intestine and liver, and is not actually found in human blood.


This information was created and edited by Richard Maddison for the BCPA.
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First published in this form 2002, and updated 2005, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2017.
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Authors, sources and acknowledgements

The main sources are BCPA Journal published articles, other information from authors, and publicly available documents and websites. In many cases the journal articles give sources and further information than the Glossary entries.

Parts of the wordings under ECG and Echocardiogram are adapted with permission from BUPA's health information resources, available at

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Richard Maddison

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