Glossary Of Terms - R

Radius Range Recipes index Donor recipient Reference Nutrient Intake Refuse Rehabilitation
Respiratory Restenosis Resuscitation Revascularisation Risk Rotablation

RA = right atrium.

Radical. For free radical see Antioxidant.

Radiofrequency Ablation of Atrial Flutter. See Radiofrequency Ablation of Atrial Flutter under Ablation.

Radius The lower arm bone on the thumb side, see under Elbow.

Randomised. See Double-blind trial.

Range. The range of a variable means either the set of allowable values; or the set of values actually occurring, observed, or calculated.

RCA = Right coronary artery. See also Coronary arteries.

Recipient. The patient who receives a transplant. See recipient under Donor.

Recipes. Most issues of the BCPA Journal give a recipe or two, usually by Janet Jackson. Here is an index to those recipes. If a reference seems to be wrong, try one issue earlier or later. If you find any errors, please email me

Back numbers from about J142 in 2005 till some time ago, but not recent ones, are available on the BCPA website at Our BCPA policy is not to put on the website back issues within the last few months or perhaps a year. From say the BCPA website home page click on Downloads near the top right, then about five lines down click on Download here, then click on the journal issue that you want, and scroll down to the relevant page.

All in one baked mushroom and ham, J197p6
Apple oatmeal crumble J165p14
Apple pie – Swedish J169p4
 Apple and blackberry loaf J185p13
 Apple and cinnamon batter pudding J190p5
 Apple and sultana cake, Pat Archer J180p10
 Apple cake J193p4
 Apple dumplings J188p7
Apricot madeira cake, J200p12
Apricot and orange loaf cake J183p9
 Apricot sponge, J195p10
Bacon and egg pie, J200p12
 Bacon with braised cabbage, J203p7
Baked cod with mushrooms and peppers J180p11
Banana gingerbread J151p17
Barabirth cake J163p11
Bean - Warm broad bean and feta salad J182p3
 Bean and sausage casserole J188p7
Beef stew with cheesy topping J176p5
Beetroot curry J157p13
Blackberry pudding J167p9
Boiled cake recipe - Things my mother taught me, Tim Gossling J183p7
Braised feather blade beef, J199p8
Brisket: Slow cooked brisket, J198p9
Broad bean, asparagus and feta cheese, J196p3
Broccoli soup J181p14
Cabbage, bacon & onion soup J164p12
Cake - Apricot and orange loaf cake J183p9
 Carrot & walnut cake J157p13, J207p6
 Cherry cake J161p9
 Fruit cake – sugar free J166p11
 Orange & apricot loaf cake J176p5
 Seed cake J180p11
Caramelised onion and goats cheese tarts, J195p10
Carrot & ginger soup J170p6
 Dairy free carrot cake, J199p8
 Carrot & walnut cake J157p13, J207p6, J210p7
Celery & leek casserole J174p11
Cheese: see: Caramelised, Chicken, Goat's, Tomato, Vegetable, Wartime
Cheesecake - Strawberry cheesecake J151p17
Cherry cake J161p9, J211p8
Chicken with tomatoes in one pan J181p14
 Chicken leek and cheese bake J193p4, J196p3
 Chicken & vegetable soup J152p9
 Warm chicken with barley salad, J191p8
Christmas pudding J168p11
Cleaning tips using distilled white vinegar, J196p3
 Cleaning tips using lemons, J197p6
Cookies: Gluten and dairy free chocolate chip cookies, J198p9
Coconut cookies gluten free J177p14
Cod - Baked cod with mushrooms and peppers J180p11
Corned beef hash & poached egg J164p12
Cream of celeriac soup J158p5, J206p7
Custard - Ivor's custard J179p14
Damson or plum puff pastry pie J186p11
Dairy free plum tart, J201p7
Date & walnut loaf J171p11
Easy risotto with peas and bacon, J197p6
Eggs - Anytime eggs J165p14
 Eggs baked eggs for supper J178p7
Figs prosciutto and stilton, Ghislaine Ellis J194p5
Fishcakes – gluten-free crispy crumb fishcakes J189p12
Fruit cake – sugar free J166p11
Fruity flapjacks J174p15
Fudge pudding J179p14
Garlic and Mushroom Pasta J173p12
Gluten and dairy free chocolate chip cookies, J198p9
Goat's cheese, potato and onion tart J162p12, J212p8
 Goat's cheese and spinach frittata, J203p7
 Goat's cheese tomato & lamb tart J178p7
Grapefruit grilled J170p6
Green pea, mint & onion soup J159p9
Healthy eating in a bowl J186p11
Homemade Bolognese J153p7
 Homemade tomato sauce J153p7
Hot cheesy potatoes & broccoli J166p11
Ivor's custard J179p14
Leek chicken and cheese bake, J201p7
Light lunches – hot bean & herb salad J155p12, J209p7
 Light lunches – minted couscous & petit pois J155p12, J209p7
 Light lunches – pasta & vegetables J155p12, J209p7
Milkshake – fruits of the forest J167p9
Minted pea omelette J170p6
 Minted salmon, tuna, or veggie & peas fishcakes J161p9, J211p8
Mushroom pasta with creamy spinach J185p13
Oatcakes J189p12
Omelette – Minted pea J170p6
Onion and celery tarts J183p9
Orange & apricot loaf cake J176p5
Pea: Green pea, mint & onion soup J159p9, J205p9
 Pea: Watercress and pea soup J187p10
Plum: Damson or plum puff pastry pie J186p11
Potato & onion tart J162p12
Pudding - Fudge pudding J179p14
Puree of carrot & parsnip soup J162p12, J212p8
Puy lentils and roasted veg, Ghislaine Ellis J194p5
Quick, simple, healthy & ethical meal J171 p12
Quinoa Tabbouleh J153p7
Red fruit fool J160p12, J208p10
Rhubarb pie J172p11
Risotto with bacon & peas J163p11
Roasted vegetable couscous, J191p8
Salad - Light lunches – hot bean & herb salad J155p12
 Tuna salad with tomatoes & haricot beans J177p14
 Warm broad bean and feta salad J182p3
Salmon and Bulgur Wheat Supper J182p3
 Salmon pasta with crème fraiche, J192p7
Sausage: Bean and sausage casserole J188p7
Seed cake J180p11
Shallot & chive mash J157p13, J207p7, J210p7
Smoked haddock stew J158p5, J206p7
Smoked mackerel pate J151p17
Soft fruit pudding J184p9
Soup - Cabbage, bacon & onion soup J164p12
 Chicken & vegetable soup J152p9
 Cream of celeriac soup J158p5, J206p7
 Green pea, mint & onion soup J159p9
 Puree of carrot & parsnip soup J162p12, J212p8
 Spicy tomato & lentil soup J152p9
 Swedish pea soup & pancakes J169p4
Spinach with Bacon and Onion J173p12
Spring onion dip J177p14
Steak with onions and red wine sauce J190p5
Strawberry cheesecake J151p17
Stuffed peppers J168p12
Stuffed turkey peppers J153p7
Swedish apple pie J169p4
Swedish pea soup & pancakes J169p4
Swedish strawberry compote J167p9
Toad in the hole & unusual gravy colcannon J175p15
Tomato & feta cheese tart J171p11
Tomatoes and rice gratin J184p9
Tuna salad with tomatoes & haricot beans J177p14
Turkey Grilled turkey with charred broccoli J159p9, J205p9
Vegetable & cheese croquettes J174p11
 Vegetable pie J172p11
 Vegetable recipes – Italian J154p11, J208p10, J209p7
 Vegetable recipes – new potatoes & coriander J154p11
 Vegetable recipes – summer vegetables with garlic, parsley, lemon glaze J154p11
 Vegetable stew J151p17
Wartime cauliflower cheese with bacon, J202p7
Warm broad bean and feta salad J182p3
Watercress and pea soup J187p10
Yoghurt, oat & fruit layer J171p11

Reference Nutrient Intake, RNI. The RNI gives for each* vitamin and mineral the recommended amount for different ages from babies to adults; and – where appropriate – the different amounts for eg pregnant or nursing mothers. This is the amount of each nutrient that is adequate to prevent deficiencies in 97.5% of the UK population. *For some vitamins and minerals no recommendation is needed or given. The source is Department of Health.

Refusal. A patient may refuse a particular treatment, and/or make a living will. Certain conditions apply. Medics, first aiders, and carers must then comply with the refusal. See under Consent. See also Do not resuscitate DNR.

Regurgitation. See Valve.

Rehabilitation means discussion; guided exercise; getting social support; understanding of the illness, treatment, and symptoms; and knowing what to do – lifestyle issues, why and how to exercise, and diet.

It helps to improve health for those who have had any of: heart attack, angioplasty, bypass surgery, stable angina, or heart failure.

After a heart attack, correct rehabilitation reduces the risk of early death by 20%.

It includes greater understanding of the illness and treatment, symptoms and what to do, lifestyle issues, exercise, diet, and getting social support.

Research trial. See Double blind trial, Statistically significant.

Respiratory means concerning breathing. See also respiratory tract under lung.

Response. See Response under First Aid.

Restenosis means becoming stenosed again after treatment such as a stent being fitted - see stenosis.

Resuscitation means to revive and/or restore to consciousness. See Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation.

Revascularisation means making the blood vessels wider and/or replacing or bypassing blocked arteries with grafts. Revascularisation treatments include:

● coronary angioplasty, normally with insertion of a stent or stents, which may be drug-eluting stents

coronary artery bypass grafts

● other forms of heart surgery and transplants.

Reye's syndrome. See Reye's syndrome under Aspirin.

Right coronary artery, RCA. This is the coronary artery at the right side of the heart that supplies blood to the muscles of the right ventricle. See Coronary arteries.

Right internal mammary artery, RIMA. See artery and internal mammary artery. May be used in a Coronary artery bypass graft.

Right ventricle. See under Ventricle.

Right ventricular heart failure. For right ventricular heart failure see under Heart failure terms.

Risk is a calculated probability or chance of some future result or outcome. The calculation is usually based on the observed pattern of many past patients.

Please distinguish between absolute risk and relative risk, sometimes abbreviated to RR. Eg if a young woman takes diclofenac, the absolute risk of having a heart attack is raised from the normal 0.1% to 0.14% (which gave the misleading headline 40% increase - the increase in relative risk). The 0.1% is the absolute risk when not taking diclofenac; the 0.14% is the absolute risk when taking it. The relative risk is the ratio - the increase in risk is 0.14 divided by 0.1 giving 0.4 = 40%. If, for example, the absolute risks were 0.1% and 0.14%, which are very small, then giving the 40% increase without the absolute figures could be misleading.

Assertions such as 'People with X have increased risk of Y' are usually based on the results of a research trial. Some people with X were compared with some people who did not have X and otherwise were similar so could be statistically compared.

For a yes/no situation example: if 90 patients of 900 previously treated have afterwards had a particular pain, the risk or chance that the next patient will have the pain is about 1 in 10 = 10%.

Observables such as height have a spread.

* Suppose some researchers found that more very tall people develop Y than the population as a whole; then they might assert that tall people have increased risk of developing Y. This may apply to eg weight, blood pressure, or similar variables.

* Eg if the mean of some result for past patients was 100 and their standard deviation, SD, was 15, the chance of the next patient being 2 SDs or more from the mean and in a particular direction such as over 130, is about 2.5% = 1 in 40. See under Standard deviation for why.

Rotablation is a surgical procedure for unblocking coronary heart arteries that cannot be unblocked easily by balloon angioplasty. A very fine drill is fitted on the end of a catheter passed through from the groin to the heart and used to drill out the hard blockage in the coronary artery. From the patient's view and experience it is very like balloon angioplasty. See also angioplasty.

RTA = Road traffic accident.

RV = Right ventricle.


This information was created and edited by Richard Maddison for the BCPA.
Copyright © 1997-2019 The British Cardiac Patients Association, and/or Richard Maddison.
BCPA Head Office: 15 Abbey Road, Bingham, Nottingham NG13 8EE
Reg Charity 289190. Email:

First published in this form 2002, and updated 2005, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2017.
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without written permission from the BCPA Head Office.

We give permission for copies to be stored and made within the BCPA and any UK hospital; and these hospitals may give printed but not electronic copies to patients provided the source and copyright is acknowledged on the copies - eg include the page footer.

Authors, sources and acknowledgements

The main sources are BCPA Journal published articles, other information from authors, and publicly available documents and websites. In many cases the journal articles give sources and further information than the Glossary entries.

Parts of the wordings under ECG and Echocardiogram are adapted with permission from BUPA's health information resources, available at

We hope we have thanked everyone.

Richard Maddison

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